Define computer and Explain various components of computer ?

Explain the block diagram of computer (or)

Define computer and explain various components exists in the computer? (or)

Explain the internal organization of computer?


A computer, can be defined as an electronic device that is designed to accept data, perform the required mathematical and logical operations at high speed, and output the result. We all have seen computers in our homes, schools, and colleges. In fact, in today’s scenario, we find computers in most aspects of our daily lives. In the past, computers were extremely large in size and often required an entire room for installation. These computer consumed enormous amounts of power and were too expensive to be used for commercial applications. However, with technological advancements, the size of computers became smaller and their energy requirements reduced immensely.

Basic Computer Organization:

A computer is an electronic device that basically performs five major operations :

·         Accepting data or instructions (input)

·         Storing data

·         Processing data

·         Displaying results (output)

·         Controlling and coordinating all operations inside a computer.

block diagram of computer

Input : 

This is the process of entering data and instructions (also known as programs) in to the computer system. The data and instructions can be entered by using different input devices such as keyboard, mouse, scanner, and trackball. Note that computers understand binary language, which consists of only two symbols (0 and 1), so it is the responsibility of the input devices to convert the input data into binary codes.

Storage : 

It is the process of saving data and instructions permanently in the computer so that they can be used for processing. The computer storage space not only stores the data and programs that operate on that data but also stores the intermediate results and the final results of processing.

A computer has two types of storage areas :

Primary storage : 

This, also known as the main memory, is the storage area that is directly accessible by the CPU at very high speeds. Primary storage space is very expensive and therefore limited in capacity. Another drawback of main memory is that it is volatile in nature; that is, as soon as the computer is switched off, the information stored gets erased. An example of primary storage is the RAM.

Secondary storage : 

Also known as the secondary memory or auxiliary memory, this is just the opposite of primary memory. It basically overcomes all the drawbacks of the primary storage area. It is cheaper, non-volatile, and used to permanently store data and programs of those jobs that are not being currently executed by the CPU.

Processing : 

The process of performing operations on the data as per the instructions specified by the user (program) is called processing. Data and instructions are taken from the primary memory and transferred to the arithmetic and logical unit (ALU), which performs all sorts of calculations. When the processing completes, the final result is then transferred to the main memory.

Output : 

Output is the process of giving the result of data processing to the outside world. The results are given through output devices such as monitor and printer. Since the computer accepts data only in the binary form and the result of processing is also in the binary form, the result cannot be directly given to the user. The output devices, therefore, convert the results available in binary codes into a human-readable language before displaying it to the user.

Control : 

The control unit (CU) is the central nervous system of the entire computer system. It manages and controls all the components of the computers system. The CU decides the manner in which instructions will be executed and operations performed. It takes care of the step-by-step processing of all operations that are performed in the computer. The CPU is a combination of the ALU and the CU. The CPU is better known as the brain of the computer system because the entire processing of data is done in the ALU, and the CU activates and monitors the operations of other units (such as input, and storage) of the computer system.


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